MSK 22 – What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Right side worse than the left with a loss of joint space + subchondral sclerosis and geodes. Remodelling is also present in the hip joint.

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Right side worse than the left with a loss of joint space + subchondral sclerosis and geodes.
Remodelling is also present in the hip joint.

Case courtesy of Dr Frank Gaillard, Radiopaedia.org. From the case rID: 35875

so, What is osteoarthritis?

OA is characterised by the loss of cartilage in synovial joints leading to changes in the periarticular bone.¹ Interestingly there’s more evidence of an inflammatory component to it’s pathology rather than just purely wear-and-tear.

Interesting and important fact:

Only advanced damaged from OA show up on X-rays.¹ Other investigations such as arthroscopy and MRI may be able to show damage in earlier stages.

For more information Listen to the episode:

 

 

References:

  1. Kumar P, Clark M (eds.) Clinical medicine. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders; 2009. p.518-521.

Additional Reading:

MSK14-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Typical 'malar' or butterfly rash in SLE showing across the nasal and cheeks

Typical ‘malar’ or butterfly rash in SLE showing across the nasal and cheeks

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease involving multiple organs. Antibody testing include Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antiphospholipid antibodies, antibodies to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and anti-Smith (Sm) antibodies.  

Note: ANA is highly sensitive, but not specific. A positive anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm are highly specific antibodies for Lupus.

Find out the pathophysiology and the diagnostic criteria from this episode!

MSK 11 – 6 Steps you MUST know in fracture healing

Types of fractures Top row (Left to right): Transverse, Oblique, Segmental Bottom row (left to right) Angulated, Shifted, Comminuted

Types of fractures
Top row (Left to right):
Transverse, Oblique, Segmental
Bottom row (left to right)
Angulated, Shifted, Comminuted

What are the 6 steps of healing a bone fracture?

  1. Haematoma formation
  2. Granulation Tissue formation
  3. Soft Callus formation
  4. Hard callus conversion
  5. Ossification
  6. Remodelling

Find out more on the Common Rounds on how bone fractures can be described and what factors affect its healing.

MSK10 – When the bone gets inflammed – Osteomyelitis

diabetic-osteomyelitis

Diabetic Osteomyelitis; Case courtesy of Dr Frank Gaillard, Radiopaedia.org. From the case rID: 7663

Ever wonder what osteomyelitis was? What is the most likely cause of it? Find out on the Common Rounds.

Answer to FB question:

Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of bone and marrow, virtually always secondary to infection. Common organisms are pyogenic bacteria and mycobacteriaThese organisms may reach the bone by (1) hematogenous spread, (2) extension from a contiguous site, and (3) direct implantation