OA is characterised by the loss of cartilage in synovial joints leading to changes in the periarticular bone.¹ Interestingly there’s more evidence of an inflammatory component to it’s pathology rather than just purely wear-and-tear.
Interesting and important fact:
Only advanced damaged from OA show up on X-rays.¹ Other investigations such as arthroscopy and MRI may be able to show damage in earlier stages.
For more information Listen to the episode:
Kumar P, Clark M (eds.) Clinical medicine. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders; 2009. p.518-521.
1. Increase bone resorption leading to rise in calcium and phosphate.
2. Phosphate is filtered in the kidney and it’s resorption is blocked by PTH. This leads to an overall drop in phosphate levels.
3. Calcium is filtered in the kidneys but the resorption is increased by PTH. This leads to an overall increase in calcium concentration.
4. PTH increases Calcitriol (activated Vit D) production in the kidneys. This indirectly increases calcium absorption from the intestines.
FOUR actions of Calcitriol (activated vitamin D)
1. Increases bone resorption causing a rise in calcium and phosphate levels.
2. Calcitriol INCREASES the reabsorption of phosphate in the kidneys.
3. Calcitriol increases the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys.
4. Calcitriol acts DIRECTLY on the intestines to increase calcium absorption from diet.
FOR MORE QUESTIONS, COME VISIT OUR FACEBOOK PAGE. WE WILL BE REGULARLY UPLOADING NEW QUESTIONS THROUGHOUT THE WEEK.
We’ve all heard the theories on different study methods and finding the right type for each of us. Some of us are auditory learners, some of us are visual. Recently I’ve experimented with learning through questions. After all, we need to recall the knowledge when prompted by the question.
I’ve made a few questions and answers for you guys to sample and see if it suits you.
Join the Common Rounds as we go into detail about what goes wrong when plasma cells produce large amounts of antibodies. Learn about Multiple Myeloma and it’s clinical features CRABs. Find out what MGUS means
Similar to Goldilox and the three bears, anemias can be classified as either microcytic, normocytic or macrocytic. This means that the red blood cells are either smaller than usual, normal size or larger than usual.
Once you know the reasons why micro and macrocytic anemias, you’ll NEVER forget it again!
Join Hamed and Andy as they go through the most common conditions that cause anemias.
Listen to the podcast (microcytic anemias)
Listen to podcast (macrocytic and normocytic anemias)
Before we approach pathologies in haematology, it’s always good to get an understanding of the basics. Today on the Common Rounds we present to you the basic principles and terminology involved in haematopoiesis – the process of blood cell generation.
How are red blood cells made? What is thrombopoiesis? What are the regulating growth factors involved in granulopoiesis?
What are HbA, HbF and HbA2?
Join us as Andy and Hamed explain the general haematopoiesis physiology.