MSK 22 – What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Right side worse than the left with a loss of joint space + subchondral sclerosis and geodes. Remodelling is also present in the hip joint.

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Right side worse than the left with a loss of joint space + subchondral sclerosis and geodes.
Remodelling is also present in the hip joint.

Case courtesy of Dr Frank Gaillard, From the case rID: 35875

so, What is osteoarthritis?

OA is characterised by the loss of cartilage in synovial joints leading to changes in the periarticular bone.¹ Interestingly there’s more evidence of an inflammatory component to it’s pathology rather than just purely wear-and-tear.

Interesting and important fact:

Only advanced damaged from OA show up on X-rays.¹ Other investigations such as arthroscopy and MRI may be able to show damage in earlier stages.

For more information Listen to the episode:




  1. Kumar P, Clark M (eds.) Clinical medicine. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders; 2009. p.518-521.

Additional Reading:

MSK 7 – Simplifying Calcium and Phosphate Regulation

Calcium and Phosphate regulation is complicated as it ties the GI, kidneys and bones together.
Join us as we go through how PTH, Calcitriol regulate calcium and phosphate.

Calcium and Phosphate regulation

Calcium and Phosphate regulation

In short:

PTH: increases [calcium], decreases [phosphate]
Calcitriol: increases [calcium], increases [phosphate]

FOUR actions of Parathyroid Hormone(PTH):

1. Increase bone resorption leading to rise in calcium and phosphate.
2. Phosphate is filtered in the kidney and it’s resorption is blocked by PTH. This leads to an overall drop in phosphate levels.
3. Calcium is filtered in the kidneys but the resorption is increased by PTH. This leads to an overall increase in calcium concentration.
4. PTH increases Calcitriol (activated Vit D) production in the kidneys. This indirectly increases calcium absorption from the intestines.

FOUR actions of Calcitriol (activated vitamin D)

1. Increases bone resorption causing a rise in calcium and phosphate levels.
2. Calcitriol INCREASES the reabsorption of phosphate in the kidneys.
3. Calcitriol increases the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys.
4. Calcitriol acts DIRECTLY on the intestines to increase calcium absorption from diet.

Learning medicine through questions



We’ve all heard the theories on different study methods and finding the right type for each of us. Some of us are auditory learners, some of us are visual. Recently I’ve experimented with learning through questions. After all, we need to recall the knowledge when prompted by the question.

I’ve made a few questions and answers for you guys to sample and see if it suits you.




Click for ANSWER: 



For more questions, come visit our Facebook page. WE WILL be regularly uploading new questions throughout the week.



Episode Heme 4 + 5: Anemias – Which is which? Too big, too small or just right

Similar to Goldilox and the three bears, anemias can be classified as either microcytic, normocytic or macrocytic. This means that the red blood cells are either smaller than usual, normal size or larger than usual.

Once you know the reasons why micro and macrocytic anemias, you’ll NEVER forget it again!

Join Hamed and Andy as they go through the most common conditions that cause anemias.

Listen to the podcast (microcytic anemias)

Listen to podcast (macrocytic and normocytic anemias)

Read the companion notes

Additional learning sources

  1. Toronto Notes 2014
  2. Pathoma series chapter 5

[Podcast] Heme #1,2,3: Basic haematopoiesis – What you need to know

Before we approach pathologies in haematology, it’s always good to get an understanding of the basics. Today on the Common Rounds we present to you the basic principles and terminology involved in haematopoiesis – the process of blood cell generation.

How are red blood cells made? What is thrombopoiesis? What are the regulating growth factors involved in granulopoiesis?
What are HbA, HbF and HbA2?

Join us as Andy and Hamed explain the general haematopoiesis physiology.

Listen to the podcast:

  • General Terms + Erythropoiesis (Making RBC)
  • Thrombopoiesis(Making platelets) + Granulopoiesis (Making WBC)
  • Hemoglobin basics: Structure, function and formation

Download notes